Glossary

4:3  The aspect ratio for standard-definition (SD) broadcast video. The ratio of the width to the height of the visible area of the video frame is 4:3, or 1.33. See also standard-definition (SD).

16:9  A widescreen aspect ratio for video. The ratio of the width to the height of the visible area of the video frame is 16:9, or 1.78. The 16:9 aspect ratio is used for high-definition video. See also high-definition (HD).

AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)  Also called MPEG-4 Audio. A standard way of compressing and encoding digital audio. AAC-encoded files rival the quality of audio CDs and generally sound as good as or better than MP3 files encoded at the same or even a higher bit rate.

AC3 (Audio Codec 3, Advanced Codec 3, Acoustic Coder 3)  A Dolby Digital compressed audio format often used for encoding surround sound.

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)  A cross-platform audio file format developed by Apple. Like WAV files, AIFF files contain “chunks” of information such as the Sound Data Chunk, which contains the actual sample data, and the Common Chunk, which contains sample rate and bit depth information.

alpha channel  An image channel in addition to the R, G, and B color channels that is used to store transparency information for compositing. Alpha channels are often 8-bit, but some applications support 16-bit alpha channels. In Final Cut Pro, black represents 100 percent transparency, and white represents 100 percent opacity. Only certain formats, such as Targa, TIFF, PNG, PSD, Apple ProRes 4444, and the QuickTime Animation codec, support alpha channels. See also compositing, RGB.

Angle Editor  You can open multicam clips in the Angle Editor to adjust the synchronization and the angle order, or to add or delete angles. You can also use the Angle Editor to make edits to the individual clips inside a multicam clip (such as trimming, making color corrections, adding transitions, and so on). See also multicam clip.

Angle Viewer  A viewer used to watch all angles of a multicam clip simultaneously while switching or cutting to different angles in real time. You can cut and switch video and audio at the same time or independently. For example, you can use the audio from angle 1 while switching the video between angles 1 to 4. See also multicam clip.

Animation Editors  See Audio Animation Editor, Video Animation Editor.

Apple ProRes  Apple codecs that provide an unparalleled combination of multistream, real-time editing performance, impressive image quality, and reduced storage rates. Apple ProRes codecs take full advantage of multicore processing and feature fast, reduced-resolution decoding modes. All Apple ProRes codecs support any frame size (including SD, HD, 2K, and 4K) at full resolution. The data rates vary based on codec type, image content, frame size, and frame rate.

Apple ProRes 4444 XQ  The highest-quality version of Apple ProRes for 4:4:4:4 image sources (including alpha channels), with a very high data rate to preserve the detail in high-dynamic-range imagery generated by today’s highest-quality digital image sensors. Apple ProRes 4444 XQ preserves dynamic ranges several times greater than the dynamic range of Rec. 709 imagery—even against the rigors of extreme visual effects processing, in which tone-scale blacks or highlights are stretched significantly. Like standard Apple ProRes 4444, this codec supports up to 12 bits per image channel and up to 16 bits for the alpha channel. Apple ProRes 4444 XQ features a target data rate of approximately 500 Mbps for 4:4:4 sources at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.

Apple ProRes 4444  An extremely high-quality version of Apple ProRes for 4:4:4:4 image sources (including alpha channels). This codec features full-resolution, mastering-quality 4:4:4:4 RGBA color and visual fidelity that is perceptually indistinguishable from the original material. Apple ProRes 4444 is a high-quality solution for storing and exchanging motion graphics and composites, with excellent multigeneration performance and a mathematically lossless alpha channel up to 16 bits. This codec features a remarkably low data rate compared to uncompressed 4:4:4 HD, with a target data rate of approximately 330 Mbps for 4:4:4 sources at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps. It also offers direct encoding of, and decoding to, both RGB and Y’CBCR pixel formats.

Apple ProRes 422 HQ  A higher-data-rate version of Apple ProRes 422 that preserves visual quality at the same high level as Apple ProRes 4444, but for 4:2:2 image sources. With widespread adoption across the video post-production industry, Apple ProRes 422 HQ offers visually lossless preservation of the highest-quality professional HD video that a single-link HD-SDI signal can carry. This codec supports full-width, 4:2:2 video sources at 10-bit pixel depths, while remaining visually lossless through many generations of decoding and reencoding. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 HQ is approximately 220 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.

Apple ProRes 422  A high-quality compressed codec offering nearly all the benefits of Apple ProRes 422 HQ, but at 66 percent of the data rate for even better multistream, real-time editing performance. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 is approximately 147 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.

Apple ProRes 422 LT  A more highly compressed codec than Apple ProRes 422, with roughly 70 percent of the data rate and 30 percent smaller file sizes. This codec is perfect for environments where storage capacity and data rate are at a premium. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 LT is approximately 102 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.

Apple ProRes 422 Proxy  An even more highly compressed codec than Apple ProRes 422 LT, intended for use in offline workflows that require low data rates but full-resolution video. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 Proxy is approximately 45 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.

aspect ratio  A film or video frame’s width-to-height ratio on any viewing screen. Standard-definition (SD) video (used for regular television screens) has an aspect ratio of 4:3. High-definition (HD) video has an aspect ratio of 16:9.

Audio Animation Editor  You can show the Audio Animation Editor for clips in the Timeline to adjust effect parameters, create fade-ins or fade-outs, or change effects over time using keyframes.

audio components  Audio files can contain a single audio channel or multiple audio channels. Final Cut Pro automatically groups audio channels into audio components according to how the channels are configured for the clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can expand the audio portion of clips to view and edit audio components down to the individual channel level.

audio sample rate  The number of times an audio signal is measured, or sampled, per second. A higher sample rate produces higher-quality audio and larger file sizes, and a lower sample rate produces lower-quality audio and smaller file sizes.

Audio Units  The standard real-time audio filter format for audio applications used with OS X.

audio waveforms  Audio waveforms are visual representations of the actual sound. An audio waveform’s amplitude and length change according to the underlying sound’s volume and duration. A short, loud sound such as a drum beat has a sharp, peaked waveform, whereas low-level crowd noise has a lower, more uniform waveform. These properties make it easier to find specific edit points when trimming clips or keyframing effects.

audition  In Final Cut Pro you can organize related clips into sets, called auditions, from which you can choose one clip to use. You can create an audition composed of different clips to try out multiple takes, or you can create an audition composed of multiple versions of the same clip to preview different effects. Auditions appear in the Browser and Timeline as clips with an Audition icon in the upper-left corner.

automatic audio sync  The “Use audio for synchronization” option in the multicam clip creation process makes precision sync adjustments using audio waveforms in the angles of a multicam clip. This is the same audio sync technology that you can use to automatically analyze and sync clips together into a compound clip.

AVCHD  A high-definition (HD) video format that uses Advanced Video Coding (AVC) compression (also known as MPEG-4 part 10 or H.264). Many Blu-ray players can play red laser discs with AVCHD format content, making this a common way to distribute short HD video projects using a standard red laser disc.

Background Tasks window  The Background Tasks window shows the progress of importing, transcoding, analysis, rendering, sharing, and other tasks.

batch  Compressor uses a batch to contain one or more source media files that you want to convert, or transcode, to another format. Each source media file creates its own job. This means that a batch can contain multiple jobs, with each job based on its own source media file. Each job also has at least one setting that defines the format of the transcoded file.

Bezier curves  A parametric curve used to create smooth movement for keyframes and animated objects in the Viewer. Bezier curves contain two kinds of points: smooth points with handles that can be manipulated to curve the adjacent line segment, and corner points that have no handles and therefore their adjacent line segments are straight (or linear).

bit rate  The number of bits per second that makes up a digital video or audio asset. The higher the bit rate, the better the quality. However, higher bit rates require larger file sizes.

Blade tool  The editing tool that allows you to cut clips in the Timeline. You can select the Blade tool by pressing the B key.

blue laser media  Blu-ray burners and players use a blue laser when working with Blu-ray media. The blue color has a shorter wavelength, making it possible to store more data on a disc when compared to red lasers.

blue or green screening  See chroma key.

broadcast-safe  Broadcast facilities have limits on the maximum values of luma and chroma that are allowable for broadcast. If a video exceeds these limits, distortion can appear, resulting in unacceptable transmission quality. You can use the Final Cut Pro video scopes to make sure that the luma and chroma levels you set stay within acceptable limits.

B-roll  A term used to describe alternate footage shot to intercut with the primary shots used in a program. B-roll is frequently used for cutaway shots.

Browser  The Browser displays the clips and projects for the item selected in the Libraries list. You select clips or portions of clips in the Browser to work with them. Open projects by double-clicking them in the Browser. You can sort or group items in the Browser by creation date, name, and duration. You can also view your clips as filmstrips or in a list.

BWF (Broadcast Wave Format)  An extension of the WAV file format that includes additional metadata such as timecode and production information.

CAF (Core Audio Format)  Apple’s Core Audio Format (CAF) is a flexible file format for storing and manipulating digital audio data. It is fully supported by Core Audio APIs on Mac OS X v10.4 and later and on Mac OS X v10.3 with QuickTime 7 or later. CAF provides high performance and flexibility, and is scalable to future ultra high-resolution audio recording, editing, and playback.

chroma  The color information contained in a video signal, consisting of hue, which represents the color itself, and saturation, which represents the intensity of the color.

chroma key  A special effects technique that allows you to derive an alpha channel or matte from the blue or green background of a video clip in order to make it transparent for the purpose of compositing it against other clips. Blue-screen technology is what makes weather forecasters appear to be standing against an animated map, when in reality they’re standing in front of a blue wall. Also known as blue or green screening. See also alpha channel.

clip  The term used to describe a video or audio asset, especially after it has been imported into Final Cut Pro. Clips appear in the Browser, the Timeline, and the media browsers. Clips in Final Cut Pro point to (link to) source media files stored on a disk. When you modify a clip, you are not modifying the media file, just the clip’s information in Final Cut Pro. (This is known as nondestructive editing.)

clipping  Distortion occurring during the playback or recording of digital audio because of a signal that exceeds the maximum sample value of 0 dBFS.

clip selection  A selection of whole clips in the Browser or the Timeline. In contrast to a range selection, a clip selection is limited to clip boundaries. You cannot adjust a clip selection to include portions of clips. However, you can add or remove whole clips.

codec  Short for compressor/decompressor, or encode/decode. A software component used to translate video or audio from its current form to the digital compressed form in which it is stored on a computer’s hard disk. DV, Photo JPEG, and Apple ProRes are common QuickTime video codecs.

color balance  Refers to the mix of red, green, and blue in a clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can adjust the color balance of the highlights (bright areas), midtones, or shadows (dark areas) of your clip using the Color Board.

color bars  A standard color test signal displayed as columns, often accompanied by a reference audio tone. Color bars are used to adjust the video signal of the incoming source to maintain proper color from import through output.

Color Board  The Color Board allows you to manually adjust a clip’s color properties. It contains separate panes for adding or subtracting a color tint, controlling the intensity of the color, and controlling the brightness of the video. In addition to an overall control, each pane has individual controls for the highlight, midtone, and shadow areas of the image.

color cast  An unwanted color tint in the image, usually caused by lighting issues.

color correction  A process in which the color of clips used in an edited program is evened out so that all shots in a given scene match. Color correction is generally one of the last steps in finishing an edited program. The color correction tools in Final Cut Pro give you precise control over the look of every clip in your project by allowing you to adjust the color balance, black levels, midtones, and white levels of individual clips.

color difference  In video formats that store color information in the Y’CbCr color space, color channels are derived by subtracting Y (luma) from the R (red) and B (blue) signals and are sometimes referred to generally as B-Y and R-Y. See also Y’CbCr.

compositing  A process in which two or more images are combined into a single frame. This term can also describe the process of creating various video effects.

compound clip  You can use compound clips to group any combination of clips in the Timeline or the Browser, and nest clips within other clips. You can open any compound clip, edit its contents in the Timeline, and then close it. Compound clips can contain video and audio clip components, clips, and other compound clips. Effectively, each compound clip can be considered a mini project, with its own distinct project settings. Compound clips function just like other clips: you can add them to your project, trim them, retime them, and add effects and transitions.

compression  The process by which video, graphics, and audio files are reduced in size. “Lossy” compression refers to a process of reducing video file sizes through the removal of redundant or less noticeable image data. Lossless compression reduces file sizes by mathematically consolidating redundant image data without discarding it.

connected clip  Connected clips are attached to clips in the primary storyline in the Timeline. They are useful for cutaway shots, superimposed or composited images, and sound effects. Connected clips remain attached and synchronized until you explicitly move or remove them. A sequence of connected clips is a storyline.

contrast  The difference between the lightest and darkest values in an image. High-contrast images have a large range of values from the darkest shadow to the lightest highlight. Low-contrast images have a more narrow range of values, resulting in a “flatter” look.

corner point  A point with no curves applied in a Bezier path. Adjacent line segments are linear.

cross dissolve  A common type of video transition, in which the first shot fades out while the second shot simultaneously fades in. During the cross dissolve, the two shots are superimposed as they fade.

crossfade  A common type of audio transition, in which the first shot’s audio fades down while the second shot’s audio simultaneously fades up. During the crossfade, audio from both shots is heard.

cut  An edit in which one clip immediately follows another, with no transition effect. This is the simplest type of edit.

cutaway shot  A shot that is related to the current subject and occurs in the same time frame (for example, an interviewer’s reaction to what is being said in an interview). Often, a cutaway shot is used to eliminate an unwanted visual section of another shot. The audio usually remains continuous during the cutaway, helping to make the edit less noticeable.

Dashboard  The Dashboard appears in the center of the toolbar and provides a timecode display as well as icons showing audio levels and the status of background tasks.

data rate  The speed at which data can be transferred, often described in megabytes per second (MB/sec.) or megabits per second (Mbps). The higher a video file’s data rate, the higher quality it is, but the more system resources (processor speed, hard disk space, and performance) it requires. Some codecs allow you to specify a maximum data rate for a movie during capture.

decibel (dB)  Unit of measurement for sound levels; a logarithmic scale used to describe the loudness of sound as perceived by the human ear. (1 dB corresponds to approximately the smallest volume change that the average human ear can perceive.) For digital audio, dBFS is the standard decibel unit of sound level measurement.

destination  A set of preconfigured export settings that you can use to share a project or clip from Final Cut Pro. Destinations make it easy to export your movie for viewing on Apple devices such as iPad and iPhone, publish your movie to websites such as YouTube or Facebook, or burn your movie to a disc. Final Cut Pro comes with a variety of destinations, and you can also modify destinations and create new destinations. You add and modify destinations in the Destinations pane of Final Cut Pro preferences.

Disk Utility  Disk Utility is an Apple application that performs disk-related tasks in OS X. It’s located in the Utilities folder inside the Applications folder.

downmixing  The process used to combine multiple audio channels into a single stereo (or dual mono) pair. Also referred to as mixing down.

downstream  Refers to clips to the right of the current clip in the Timeline. When you perform actions that ripple the project, downstream clips are affected; upstream clips are not.

drop frame timecode  NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except every tenth minute, so that the timecode agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. (Timecode numbers are skipped, but actual video frames are not skipped.) This skipping corrects for NTSC’s actual frame rate of 29.97 fps, which causes non-drop frame timecode to lag behind actual elapsed time by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour. To avoid confusion, drop frame timecode should be avoided in film-based productions. See also non-drop frame timecode.

drop shadow  An effect that creates an artificial shadow behind an image. Typically used with graphics and text.

DV  A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal with 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). Supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 32 kHz audio sampling.

DVCAM  A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal with 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). Supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 32 kHz audio sampling.

DVCPRO  A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal using 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). Supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling.

DVCPRO50  A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 3.3:1 compressed component video signal with 4:2:2 color sampling. Supports four tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling.

DVCPRO HD  A high-definition (HD) video format that records an 8-bit, compressed component video signal with 4:2:2 color sampling. Both 720p and 1080i are supported. Includes up to eight tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling. The total data rate is 115 Mbps.

DVD  A disc that is the size of a CD but that uses higher-density storage methods to significantly increase its capacity. Although usually used for video distribution, DVD-ROM discs can also be used to store computer data.

dynamic range  The difference, in decibels, between the loudest and softest parts of a recording.

ease in  An effect in which an object in motion decelerates slowly until it comes to a stop, rather than ending its movement abruptly. This simulates the effect of friction in the real world and generally creates a more natural, organic-looking effect than a linear movement would.

ease out  An effect in which an object in motion accelerates from its starting position slowly rather than beginning its movement at full speed. This simulates the effect of inertia and friction in the real world and generally creates a more natural, organic-looking effect than a linear movement would.

editing tools  The seven tools from which you can choose when you’re working in the Timeline: Select tool, Trim tool, Position tool, Range Selection tool, Blade tool, Zoom tool, and Hand tool. When you choose a tool, the pointer changes to the icon for that tool.

edit point  Edit points define the part of a clip you want to use in an edited project. Edit points include start points, which specify the beginning of a section of a clip or project, and end points, which specify the end of a section of a clip or project. An edit point is also a point in the Timeline where the end point of one clip meets the start point of the next clip. This edit point can be selected for various operations.

Effects Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that contains video and audio clip effects.

equalization  An equalizer (commonly abbreviated as EQ) shapes the sound of incoming audio by changing the level of specific frequency bands. Equalization is one of the most commonly used audio processes, both for music projects and in video post-production work. You can use EQ to subtly or significantly shape the sound of an audio file, instrument, or project by adjusting specific frequencies or frequency ranges.

event  When you import video, audio, and still images, or record directly into Final Cut Pro, the source media files (your raw footage) are stored in events. An event is similar to a folder that can hold dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of video clips, audio clips, and still images, as well as projects. Each event in the library refers to media on your hard disk, and a database file keeps track of where everything is.

Event Viewer  The Event Viewer is a separate video display that appears next to the main Viewer and is used to play clips in the Browser only.

exposure  The amount of light in video or film images. Exposure affects the overall brightness of the image as well as its perceived contrast.

fade  A common type of transition in both video and audio. For video, a fade-out begins with a shot at full intensity and reduces until it is gone. A fade-in begins with a shot at no intensity and increases to full intensity. These are the common “fade to black” and “fade up (from black)” transitions. Audio fade-ins begin with silence and increase to full volume, and fade-outs begin at full volume and decrease to silence.

filmstrip  Your video clips appear as filmstrips in the Timeline (where you build projects) and in the Browser (where your source media is displayed). A single video filmstrip might represent several seconds of video encompassing hundreds of video frames (individual images). Audio-only clips appear as audio waveforms, showing the change in the audio volume over time.

FireWire  The trademarked Apple name for the IEEE 1394 standard. A fast and versatile interface used to connect DV camcorders to computers. FireWire is well suited to applications that move large amounts of data, and it can also be used to connect hard disks, scanners, and other kinds of computer peripherals.

Foley effects  Foley effects are custom sound effects that are heavily synchronized to picture, such as footsteps on different surfaces, clothes rustling, fight sounds, and the handling of various noisy objects. Final Cut Pro includes a number of built-in Foley and other sound effects that you can insert as connected audio clips.

frame  A single still image. Film and video are made up of a series of these images. Although a film frame is a single photographic image, an interlaced video frame contains two fields. See also interlaced video, non-interlaced video.

frame blending  Duplicating frames to create slow motion can result in a strobing, jittery effect. To minimize this, you can turn on Frame Blending in the Retime pop-up menu in the toolbar. Frame blending creates new in-between frames, each a composite of two neighboring frames.

frame rate  The number of images photographed per second for a video clip.

frame size  See resolution.

frequency  The number of times a sound or signal vibrates each second, measured in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz). Audio recordings are made up of a vast collection of waveforms, using many different frequencies of sound. Each frequency in a recording is associated with an audio pitch. For example, the note generated by each key of a piano has a specific frequency.

Front Row  Front Row, an application that comes with OS X, is a way to navigate through your iTunes, iLife, and Final Cut Pro media using an Apple remote control or the Remote app. You can also open Front Row by pressing Command-Escape.

gain  The amount an audio or video signal is boosted. In video, this increases the white level; in audio, this increases the volume.

gamma  A curve that describes the intensity of an image. Gamma is a nonlinear function often confused with brightness or contrast. Gamma adjustment is often used to compensate for differences between Mac and Windows video graphics cards and displays.

gap clip  A blank clip (containing blank video and silent audio) that you can adjust to any duration. (The film industry term for this is slug.) Gap clip color is determined by the current background color in Final Cut Pro. You can adjust the background color using the Player Background pop-up menu in the Playback pane of the Final Cut Pro Preferences window.

generators  Clips that are synthesized by Final Cut Pro. Generators can be used as different kinds of backgrounds, titles, and elements for visual design.

Generators Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that provides access to all video generators included with Final Cut Pro.

Hand tool  The editing tool that allows you to scroll in the Timeline. You can select the Hand tool by pressing the H key.

H.264  H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a video compression standard in widespread use for recording, distribution, and Internet streaming of high-definition video.

HDCAM  A high-definition (HD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 7.1:1 DCT-compressed component video signal with 3:1:1 color sampling. Recorded using 1/2-inch tape. Supports four tracks of audio.

HDV  A format for recording high-definition video on DV tape. HDV uses MPEG-2 video compression with 8-bit samples and 4:2:0 chroma subsampling. HDV has a video bit rate of 18.3 Mbps for 720p (1280 x 720) and a bit rate of 25 Mbps for 1080i (1440 x 1080).

high-definition (HD)  Refers to any video with a higher resolution than standard-definition NTSC or PAL video. The most common high-definition resolutions are 1280 x 720 (720p) and 1920 x 1080 (1080i or 1080p). See also NTSC format, PAL format, standard-definition (SD).

Histogram  A video scope in Final Cut Pro that provides a statistical analysis of the image by graphing the number of pixels at each percentage of luma or color. It’s useful for comparing two clips in order to match their brightness values more closely.

hue  An attribute of color perception, also known as color phase. Red, blue, yellow, and green are all hues.

import  The process of bringing media files of various types into events in Final Cut Pro. You can import files from connected camcorders and other devices, other applications, or connected storage devices.

IMX  A standard-definition (SD), all-I-frame MPEG-2 format stored on tape, XDCAM optical disc, or disk drive. Some IMX decks can play back and convert formats such as Digital Betacam, Betacam SX, and Betacam SP to IMX. The data rate of IMX can be set to 30, 40, or 50 Mbps.

incoming clip  The clip to which a transition segues. For example, if Clip A dissolves to Clip B, Clip B is the incoming clip. See also outgoing clip.

Info inspector  The Info inspector displays information (called metadata) about a clip or group of clips selected in either the Browser or the Timeline. You can display different combinations of metadata with your clips, such as codecs, media start and end times, reel, scene, take, EXIF information, and IPTC information. You can also use the Info inspector to change the metadata for a selected clip or group of clips, and you can create custom sets of metadata for display using the Metadata Views window, accessed from the Info inspector.

In point  See edit point.

insert edit  An insert edit places the source clip so that all clips after the insertion point are moved forward (or rippled) in the Timeline to make room for the clip being added. No clips are removed from your project. An insert edit makes the project longer by the duration of the inserted clip.

inspectors  Final Cut Pro provides a number of inspectors you can use to view and change the attributes of selected items. For example, you can adjust video effects and apply color corrections in the Video inspector. Other inspectors include the Audio, Audio Enhancements, Info, Transition, Title, Text, Generator, Library Properties, and Share inspectors. The inspectors appear in the Inspector pane in the upper-right corner of the Final Cut Pro main window.

interlaced video  A scanning method that divides a video frame into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines that are scanned at different times.

IRE  An analog video signal unit of measurement for luma, established by the Institute of Radio Engineers.

J-cut  See split edit.

job  Each media file added to a batch in Compressor is a job. Each job has one media file and one or more settings that define the type of file to render. See also batch.

JPEG  A popular image file format that lets you create highly compressed graphics files. The amount of compression used can be varied. Less compression results in a higher-quality image.

keyframe  A control that denotes the value of a video or audio effect parameter at a particular point in the project. When two keyframes with different values are set in Final Cut Pro, a transition from one value to another is calculated, resulting in a dynamic change to that parameter. The word keyframe comes from the traditional workflow in the animation industry, where only important (key) frames of an animated sequence were drawn to sketch a character’s motion over time. Once the keyframes were determined, an in-between artist drew all the frames between the keyframes.

keying  See chroma key, luma key.

Keyword Collection  When you apply a keyword to a clip, a Keyword Collection is automatically created in the event in the library. When you select the Keyword Collection, each clip tagged with that keyword is displayed.

keywords  Keywords add descriptive information to a clip or clip range. You can use keywords to organize, sort, and classify media. You can add keywords to a clip manually, and Final Cut Pro can also add keywords automatically during import or clip analysis. See also Keyword Collection.

L-cut  See split edit.

Libraries list  The area of the Final Cut Pro sidebar that lists the libraries and events that contain your imported media (video, audio, and still images) and your projects. When you select an event or a library in the Libraries list, its media appears as clips in the Browser, and its projects appear as thumbnails. The Libraries list is also the home for Final Cut Pro Keyword Collections and Smart Collections, which provide a powerful way to organize your media using keywords and persistent search filters.

linear editing  Before digital video editing, programs were edited together by copying shots from the original source tapes to a master tape, one by one. Because the assembly was linear, any changes in duration made to an earlier point of the tape required reassembling the movie from that point forward. See also nonlinear editing.

looping  A playback mode in which clips and projects go back to the beginning whenever the playhead reaches the end of the media. You can turn looping on or off from the View menu or by pressing Command-L.

lower third  A television industry term for a graphic placed in the lower area of the screen, usually to convey details about subjects or products. A common use of lower thirds is to identify individuals on the screen with their names and job titles.

luma  A value describing the brightness of a video image. A luma channel is a grayscale image showing the range of brightness across the whole clip.

luma key  An effect used to key out pixels of a certain luma value (or a range of luma values), creating a matte based on the brightest or darkest area of an image. Keying out luma values works best when your clip has a large discrepancy in exposure between the areas that you want to key out and the foreground images you want to preserve, such as a white title on a black background. See also chroma key, matte.

Mail  Mail is the email application that comes with OS X.

markers  Markers flag a specific location in a clip with editing notes or other descriptive information. You can also use markers for task management. Markers are classified as standard markers (blue), chapter markers (orange), to-do items (red), or completed to-do items (green).

mask  An image or clip used to define areas of transparency in another clip. Similar to an alpha channel. The color correction tools can create masks based on a color you choose or a shape you create. See also alpha channel.

matte  Sometimes referred to as a holdout matte. An effect that uses information in one layer of video to affect another layer. Mattes are useful when you want to use one clip to selectively hide or reveal part of another; for example, you could use a round spotlight shape to reveal parts of a video layer. Matte effects can be used by themselves to mask out areas of a clip or to create alpha channel information for a clip in order to make a transparent border around the clip that can be composited against other layers. See also alpha channel, compositing.

media  A generic term for elements such as movies, sounds, and pictures.

media browsers  Media that you import into events in Final Cut Pro is accessed from the Libraries list and the Browser, but Final Cut Pro also includes a collection of media browsers you can use to add clips to your project. The media browsers provide access to the effects, titles, and transitions supplied with Final Cut Pro as well as to video, audio, and still-image files in other applications on your computer. For example, you can use the Photos Browser to access video and still-image files in the iPhoto and Aperture libraries. Other media browsers include the Effects, Music and Sound, Transitions, Titles, Generators, and Themes Browsers. The media browsers appear in the Media Browser pane in the lower-right corner of the Final Cut Pro main window.

media handle  Additional media available before a clip start point or after a clip end point.

media stems  Audio or video files that are usually exported separately for audio mixing or post-production, or to match specifications when delivering files to broadcast networks. For example, you may need to deliver a multitrack QuickTime file along with separate dialogue, music, and effects stems.

mixing  The process of adjusting the audio levels of all audio clips in an edited program, including the production audio, music, sound effects, voiceovers, and additional background ambience, to turn all of these sounds into a harmonious whole.

monochrome  An image presented in shades of a single color, most often as the shades of gray in a black-and-white image.

MP3  Refers to the MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer 3 compression standard and file format. Like AAC, MP3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove superfluous information that the human ear doesn’t hear.

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)  A group of compression standards for video and audio, which includes MPEG‑1, MPEG‑2, and MPEG‑4.

multicam clip  A set of clips grouped together and synchronized by a common sync point. You can use multicam clips to edit footage from multicamera shoots or other synchronized footage in real time. While the active angle plays in the Viewer, you can also view all angles playing simultaneously in the Angle Viewer and easily cut and switch between them.

Music and Sound Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that allows you to access your iTunes content as well as sound effects and loops from Final Cut Pro and iLife.

nested sequence  See compound clip.

NLE  Short for nonlinear editor. See also nonlinear editing.

nondestructive editing  No matter how you edit clips in Final Cut Pro, the underlying media is never touched. This is known as nondestructive editing, because all of the changes and effects you apply to your footage never affect the original source media files. Clips represent your media, but they are not the media files themselves. The clips in a project simply point to (link to) the source media files on your hard disk. When you modify a clip, you are not modifying the media file, just the clip’s information in the project. Trimmed or deleted pieces of clips are removed from your project only, not from the source clips in your library or from the source media files on your hard disk.

non-drop frame timecode  Timecode in which frames are numbered sequentially and no timecode numbers are dropped from the count. When discussing NTSC video, the video frame rate is actually 29.97 fps, and non-drop frame timecode is off by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time. See also drop frame timecode.

non-interlaced video  The standard representation of images on a computer. Also referred to as progressive scan. The monitor displays the image by drawing lines, one after another, from top to bottom.

nonlinear editing  A video editing method in which edits within a program can be changed at any time without having to re-create the entire program. When you use a nonlinear editing application to edit a program, all footage used is stored on a hard disk rather than on tape. This allows random access to all video, audio, and images as you edit. See also linear editing.

NTSC format  The video standard defined by the National Television Standards Committee, the organization that originally defined North American broadcast standards. Analog NTSC video has 525 interlaced lines per frame, a frame rate of 29.97 fps, and a limited color gamut. Digital NTSC video has a frame size of 720 x 486 pixels (720 x 480 for DV and DVD), and a frame rate of 29.97 fps. See also PAL format.

offline editing  A post-production process in which raw footage is copied and edited without affecting the original camera media (film, tape, or file-based media). After a program has been completed in the offline edit (typically using proxy media at a lower resolution), an online edit is performed to re-create the edit using the original media.

opacity  The level of a clip’s transparency.

outgoing clip  The clip a transition segues from. For example, if Clip A dissolves to Clip B, Clip A is the outgoing clip. See also incoming clip.

Out point  See edit point.

overwrite edit  In an overwrite edit, one or more source clips overwrite any clips in the primary storyline or a selected storyline, starting at a range selection start point or at the skimmer or playhead position. No clip items are rippled forward, so the duration of your project remains the same. Overwriting is purely duration-based and works on range selections only, irrespective of clip boundaries.

PAL format  Acronym for Phase Alternating Line, a 25 fps (625 lines per frame) interlaced video format used by many European countries. Digital PAL video has a frame size of 720 x 576. See also NTSC format.

Photos Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that allows you to access your iPhoto and Aperture photo libraries.

pitch  Sounds are perceived as high or low depending on their frequency, or the number of times per second a sound wave cycles from positive to negative and back to positive. The word that musicians most commonly use for frequency is pitch. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. Modifying the speed of a clip affects the pitch of the audio. Slow motion creates low pitch, and fast motion creates high pitch.

pixel  One dot in a video or still image. The more pixels in an image, the higher the resolution.

playhead  The playhead marks your project’s current position in the Timeline or the Browser. You can move the playhead by dragging it or clicking another area of the Timeline or Browser. You use the playhead to scrub, or move through your project and play it back from different locations. The playhead appears as a gray vertical line that is fixed in place unless you move it or click elsewhere. See also skimmer.

Position tool  The editing tool that allows you to place items in the Timeline. You can select the Position tool by pressing the P key.

post-production  The phase of film or video editing in which all of the production elements are organized, assembled, and output.

project  A project provides a record of your editing decisions and the media you use. You build your project by adding clips and editing them in the Timeline. A project is also defined by its video, audio, and render properties. In most cases, Final Cut Pro manages project settings automatically based on the properties of the first clip you add to a project.

project properties  A project’s video, audio, and render properties. In most cases, Final Cut Pro manages a project’s properties automatically based on the properties of the first clip you add to a project. If you must modify the project properties, choose video and audio project properties based on how you intend to share your final movie with your audience. You set a project’s properties when you create a Final Cut Pro project, and you can change them at any time.

proxy files  You can use Final Cut Pro to transcode your original media to create proxy files, which are smaller files with a lower data rate. Proxy files can be used for offline editing or for editing when using a slower computer. Final Cut Pro creates video proxy files using the Apple ProRes 422 Proxy codec, and still-image proxy files using the JPEG format (if the original file doesn’t have alpha channel information) or the PNG format (if the file has alpha channel information). See also alpha channel.

QuickTime  Cross-platform multimedia technology from Apple. Widely used for production, post-production, and distribution of video, audio, and interactive programs.

range  Instead of selecting whole clips, you can select a range within any clip in the Timeline or the Browser. You can trim range selections, mark them with ratings and keywords, and modify them in other ways. You can adjust the range start and end points by dragging either side of the selection. In the Timeline, you can also select a range that spans multiple clips. In the Browser, you can set multiple ranges within one or more clips, and you can select and deselect ranges after you set them.

Range Selection tool  The editing tool that allows you to select a range in the Timeline. You can select the Range Selection tool by pressing the R key.

Rec. 709  Short for ITU-R Recommendation BT.709, the standard broadcast format for high-definition television.

red laser media  Traditional DVD burners and players use a red laser when working with DVD media. Blu-ray burners and players use a blue laser when working with Blu-ray media. The blue color has a shorter wavelength, making it possible to store more data on a disc when compared to red lasers.

render  To process video and audio with any applied effects or transitions, and store the result on disk as a render file. These render files are stored with your Final Cut Pro event and project files. When you publish or export a project, it is similarly rendered to create the output files.

replace edit  In a replace edit, a source selection replaces a clip in your project in the Timeline. In contrast to overwrite edits, replacing works on whole Timeline clips only and can change the duration of your project.

resolution  Image resolution refers to the number of pixels in an image. Resolution is expressed in terms of the width and height of the image in pixels (for example, 640 x 360 pixels). Higher-resolution images contain more detail but also create larger files that take longer to download. Your electronic devices (computer, iPhone, iPad, iPod, and so on) also have screen resolution. Ideally, you should match the image resolution of your media to the resolution of your playback device.

reverb  Reverberation, or reverb, refers to the reflection pattern created by bouncing sound waves off the surfaces—walls, ceilings, windows, and so on—of any space, or off objects within a space, gradually dying out until they are inaudible. Final Cut Pro includes a variety of audio effects that add reverb to the sound of a clip.

RGB  Abbreviation for Red, Green, Blue. A color space commonly used on computers, in which each color is described by the strength of its red, green, and blue components. This color space directly translates to the red, green, and blue phosphors used in computer displays. The RGB color space has a very large gamut, meaning it can reproduce a very wide range of colors. This range is typically larger than the range that can be reproduced for broadcast.

ripple edit  The default type of trim in Final Cut Pro is a ripple trim, which adjusts a clip’s start point or end point without leaving a gap in the Timeline. The change in the clip’s duration ripples outward, moving all subsequent clips earlier or later in the Timeline. Similarly, if you delete a clip from the Timeline, subsequent clips ripple earlier to close the gap. Ripple edits affect the trimmed clip, the position of all subsequent clips in the Timeline, and the total duration of your project.

roles  Metadata text labels that you assign to clips in the Browser or the Timeline. Roles provide a flexible and powerful way to manage your editing workflow. You can use roles in Final Cut Pro to organize clips in your events and projects, control the appearance of the Timeline, and export separate video or audio files (also known as media stems) for broadcast delivery, audio mixing, or post-production.

roll edit  An edit that affects two clips that share an edit point. For example, if Clip A cuts to Clip B, a roll edit simultaneously adjusts the end point of Clip A and the start point of Clip B by the same amount. The overall duration of the project stays the same.

rough edit  The first editing pass. The rough cut is an early version of a movie that pulls together its basic elements. Often, a rough edit is performed prior to adding transitions, titles, and other effects.

saturation  A measurement of the intensity of color in the video signal.

scene  A series of shots that take place at the same time in the same location. A series of scenes make up a program.

Select tool  The default arrow-shaped pointer that allows you to select items in the Timeline. For example, you use it to select a clip or edit point. You can select the Select tool by pressing the A key.

sequence  See project, Timeline.

shortcut menu  A menu you access by holding down the Control key and clicking an item on the screen, or by pressing the right mouse button. Sometimes called a contextual menu.

shot  A segment of continuously recorded video. A shot is the smallest unit of a program.

skimmer  The skimmer lets you preview clips in the Timeline and the Browser without affecting the playhead position. You use the skimmer to skim, or freely move over clips to play back at the position and speed of the pointer. The skimmer appears as a pink vertical line as you move the pointer over the area you’re skimming. If you have snapping turned on, the skimmer turns orange when it snaps to a position.

slate  A shot at the beginning of a scene, which identifies the scene with basic production information such as the take, date, and scene number. A clapper provides an audiovisual cue for synchronization when video and audio are recorded separately.

slide edit  An edit in which an entire clip is moved, along with the edit points on its left and right. The duration of the clip being moved stays the same, but the clips to the left and right of it change in length to accommodate the new position of the clip. The overall duration of the project and of these three clips remains the same.

slip edit  An edit in which the location of both start and end points of a project clip are changed at the same time, without changing the position or duration of the clip. This is referred to as slipping, because you slip the clip’s start and end points inside the available footage. The portion of the clip seen in the project changes, but its position in the Timeline stays the same.

Smart Collection  When you search for clips in an event using the Filter window, you can save your results by creating a new Smart Collection that gathers clips matching the search criteria. Whenever a new clip that matches the Smart Collection’s search criteria is brought into the event, the new clip is automatically added to the Smart Collection. Clips that appear in Smart Collections are not duplicates. Smart Collections filter clips in an event to help you focus on the clips you need to use for a specific task.

snapping  When the snapping feature is turned on in Final Cut Pro, items you move in the Timeline (including the playhead, the skimmer, and selected clips) appear to jump, or “snap,” directly to certain points in the Timeline. This can help you quickly line up edits with other items in the project. Snapping affects the functions of many of the editing tools in Final Cut Pro, including the Select tool, the Trim tool, the Position tool, the Range Selection tool, and the Blade tool. You can disable snapping when frame-by-frame precision editing is required.

sound effects  Specific audio material, such as the sound of a door closing or a dog barking, from effects libraries or from clips you recorded. Sound effects can be used to replace sounds in the location audio of a program, or to add sound that wasn’t originally recorded.

source media files  The original files (video, audio, and still images or graphics) that you import into Final Cut Pro. A clip you use in Final Cut Pro points to the location where the source media file is stored (either on a disk or on a camcorder, camera, or device). Changes made to clips within Final Cut Pro do not affect the source media files.

special effects  Visual effects applied to clips and projects, such as motion effects, compositing, keying, and retiming effects.

spill suppression  Spill suppression is a color correction operation that applies the complementary (opposite) color of the color that’s being made transparent to neutralize any green or blue fringing or light bounce that’s tinting the subject being keyed. The Spill Level slider controls how much spill suppression is applied to the keyed subject.

split edit  Final Cut Pro allows you to set separate video and audio start and end points in an individual clip. These edits, known as split edits, are a common technique in most dialogue scenes in films and television shows. You can use split edits to introduce the sound of a new shot or scene before cutting to the video of that shot or scene. Conversely, you can use a split edit to extend the audio of a shot over a subsequent shot.

standard-definition (SD)  Refers to the original NTSC and PAL video frame sizes. NTSC uses 480 or 486 active lines per frame, and PAL uses 576 active lines. See also high-definition (HD).

stereo  Short for stereophonic, in which audio contains two different channels. Audio level changes are automatically made to both channels at the same time.

storylines  All instances of the Timeline contain a primary storyline, which is the main sequence of clips that you build to create your movie. Storylines are sequences of clips connected to the primary storyline. You can use storylines for the same purposes as connected clips (such as creating cutaways, compositing titles and other graphics, and adding sound effects and music).

straight cut  A cut in which both the video and audio clip items are cut at the same time.

subframe  A subframe has 1/80 the duration of a video frame and is thus a more precise unit of reference when editing audio at the sample level.

sync (synchronization)  The relationship between the image of a sound being made in a video clip (for example, a person talking) and the corresponding sound in an audio clip. Maintaining audio sync is critical when editing dialogue. In Final Cut Pro X, connected clips and compound clips help maintain sync in your program.

Themes Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that provides access to all transitions and title effects supplied with Final Cut Pro, grouped into related themes.

three-point editing  An editing technique in which three out of four edit points are set in a source selection and a project. When the edit is performed, the fourth edit point is calculated automatically by Final Cut Pro.

through edit  An edit point in which the video or audio content on either side of the edit is continuous.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)  A widely used bitmapped graphics file format, developed by Aldus and Microsoft, that handles monochrome, grayscale, 8- and 24-bit color. Can have alpha channels. See also alpha channel.

timecode  A signal recorded with your video that uniquely identifies each frame. By default, timecode appears in Final Cut Pro in the format hours: minutes: seconds: frames. Timecode supports a variety of functions in Final Cut Pro, including Timeline playback, synchronizing video and audio clip items, navigating through projects in the Timeline, and moving and trimming clips.

Timeline  The bottom portion of the Final Cut Pro window contains the Timeline, where you create your movie project by adding and arranging clips and making all your edits.

Timeline Index  You can view a text-based, chronological list of the clips, keywords, and markers in a project using the Timeline Index. When you select an item in the Timeline Index, the playhead jumps to that item in the Timeline.

tint  A color shade added to an image, usually to create an effect, such as sepia.

Titles Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that provides access to all the title effects included with Final Cut Pro.

toolbar  The toolbar is a collection of buttons and tools located in the middle of the Final Cut Pro main window. The toolbar also includes the Dashboard, which displays the timecode for the clip selected in the Browser and for the playhead’s position in the Timeline.

transcode  All media files use a format. Video format examples include DV, H.264, and MPEG-2. Video files also have a variety of properties, such as video frame size and frame rate, data rate, and audio sample rate. When you need to convert a media file to a different format or change its properties, you transcode it to the new format or properties. Compressor, an Apple application designed to work with Final Cut Pro, makes transcoding media files a fast and easy process.

transitions  Effects that are applied to edit points to smooth out a change from clip to clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can choose from a variety of video transitions, such as a dissolves or wipes, or you can add an audio crossfade between audio clips.

Transitions Browser  A media browser in Final Cut Pro that provides access to all the video transitions included with Final Cut Pro.

trim  After you’ve assembled your clips in rough chronological order in the Timeline, you begin to fine-tune the cut point (or edit point) between each pair of contiguous clips. Any time you make a clip in a project longer or shorter, you’re trimming that clip. However, trimming generally refers to precision adjustments of anywhere from one frame to several seconds. If you’re adjusting clip durations by much larger amounts, you’re still trimming, but you may not be in the fine-tuning phase of editing yet. In Final Cut Pro, you can use a variety of techniques to trim Timeline clips and edit points, including ripple edits, roll edits, slip edits, and slide edits.

Trim tool  The editing tool that allows you to trim items in the Timeline. You can select the Trim tool by pressing the T key.

uncompressed 8- and 10-bit 4:2:2  These video formats can be used to store 8-bit or 10-bit 4:2:2 Y’CbCr video without employing data compression. Bypassing compression reduces the computer’s processing load but increases the data rate considerably. A large-capacity RAID storage system is typically required to work effectively with uncompressed video. In many cases, Apple ProRes is a better choice. The data rate of uncompressed 4:2:2 video varies according to frame size and frame rate. As an example, at a frame size of 1920 x 1080 and a frame rate of 29.97 fps, the data rate is 1.0 Gbps for uncompressed 8-bit 4:2:2 video and 1.3 Gbps for uncompressed 10-bit 4:2:2 video.

upstream  Refers to clips that are to the left of the current clip in the Timeline. When you perform actions that ripple the project, upstream clips are not affected.

value slider  A value slider is a type of numerical slider control that appears as a number, often to the right of a basic slider. There are two ways to adjust a value slider: by dragging over the number to decrease or increase the parameter value, or by double-clicking the number and entering a new value.

variable speed  Speed that varies dynamically, in forward or reverse motion, in a single clip.

VCR  Abbreviation for videocassette recorder. Generally refers to consumer equipment used for recording video from various sources. Sometimes referred to as a VTR. See also VTR.

Vectorscope  A video scope in Final Cut Pro that shows the distribution of color in your image on a circular scale. The Vectorscope is useful for comparing the hue and intensity of colors between two clips for the purposes of color correction.

Video Animation Editor  You can show the Video Animation Editor for clips in the Timeline to adjust effect parameters, create fade-ins or fade-outs, or change effects over time using keyframes.

Viewer  When you play clips selected in the Browser and the Timeline, they appear in the Viewer.

VTR  Abbreviation for videotape recorder. Generally refers to professional equipment used for recording video from various sources.

watermark  A visible graphic or text overlay applied to an image or video clip to indicate that it is protected by a copyright. Watermarks are used to discourage the use of images or video clips without the copyright holder’s explicit permission.

WAVE (or WAV)  An audio file format most commonly used for storing uncompressed linear pulse code modulation (LPCM) audio data.

Waveform Monitor  A video scope in Final Cut Pro that displays the relative levels of luma and chroma in the clip currently being examined. Spikes and dips in the displayed waveforms correspond to light or dark areas in your picture.

widescreen  Any movie presentation that has an aspect ratio wider than 4:3. In movie theaters, 1.85 is considered standard and 2.40 is considered widescreen. For video, 4:3 is considered standard and 16:9 (which is almost the same aspect ratio as 1.85) is considered widescreen. See also 4:3, 16:9.

wipe  A common type of video transition. In a wipe, the screen splits, moving from one side of the image to the other to gradually reveal the next shot. A wipe is more obvious (and customizable) than a fade or cross dissolve.

XDCAM  Sony optical disc format for recording DVCAM and IMX video within MXF container files. See also DVCAM, IMX.

XDCAM EX  A member of the Sony XDCAM product family that uses MPEG-2 video compression with 4:2:0 chroma sampling. In contrast to XDCAM HD, XDCAM EX supports 720p and records full HD resolution (either 1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720). Its maximum bit rate is 35 Mbps. Instead of optical discs, XDCAM EX camcorders use solid-state memory cards known as SxS cards. See also HDV.

XDCAM HD422  A member of the Sony XDCAM product family featuring 4:2:2 chroma sampling and a video bit rate of 50 Mbps. Like XDCAM EX, it uses MPEG-2 video compression at full HD resolution (either 1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720). See also HDV.

Y’CbCr  The color space in which many digital video formats store data. Three components are stored for each pixel—one for luma (Y) and two for color information (Cb for the blue difference signal and Cr for the red difference signal). Also referred to as YUV. See also pixel.

Zoom tool  The editing tool that allows you to zoom in to or out of the Timeline. You can select the Zoom tool by pressing the Z key.